The history of the contact lens began with the application of the scleral lens. Theoretical studies by Leonardo da Vinci, René Descartes and others were the beginnings of successful applications. In 1888 and quite coincidentally, the contact lens was simultaneously invented by A.E. Fick, a physician in Zurich (Switzerland), E. Kalt, a physician in Paris (France) and A. Mueller from Kiel (Germany) (FIGURES 11 and 12). These early lenses were all scleral lenses and were made out of glass. The development of materials with high gas permeability, together with various technological innovations in the design and manufacture of scleral lenses, has given rise to new perspectives for their use.